Glossary and References | Principles of Public Speaking (2024)


Avocational PresentationsPresentations outside of a specific occupation in which one engages.
CohesivenessThe tendency for a group to stick together and remain unified in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives.
DebateA structured argument in which participants speak for or against a pre-announced proposition. The proposition is worded so that one side has the burden of proof, and that same side has the benefit of speaking first and last. Speakers assume an advocacy role and attempt to persuade the audience, not each other.
Delivery OutlineAn abbreviated version of the preparation outline.
ForumEssentially a question-and-answer format. One or more experts may be questioned by a panel of other experts, journalists, and/or the audience.
Group CommunicationThe process of creating meanings in the minds of others.
GroupthinkA faulty sense of agreement that occurs when group members seemingly agree but they primarily want to avoid conflict.
MeetingA structured conversation among a small group of people who gather to accomplish a specific task.
Negotiating StrategyThe overall approach you take when you exchange proposals and counterproposals with another person when discussing a settlement to a conflict.
PanelA group of experts publicly discussing a topic among themselves. Individually prepared speeches, if any, are limited to very brief opening statements.
Preparation OutlineA full-sentence outline of virtually everything the speaker intends to say. It allows speakers to test the structure, the logic, and persuasive appeals in the speech.
ProtocolsMutually agreed upon ways of interacting.
Small GroupConsists of three to fifteen people who share a common purpose, feel a sense of belonging to the group, and exert influence on each other.
Small Group InteractionThe process by which three or more members of a group exchange verbal and nonverbal messages in an attempt to influence one another.
Social LoafingThe decreased effort of each individual member as the number of a group increases.
Speaking GroupA collection of three or more speakers who come together to accomplish pre-assigned message content goals.
SymposiumA series of short speeches, usually informative, on various aspects of the same general topic. Audience questions often follow.
TeamA coordinated group of people organized to work together to achieve a specific, common goal.
Vocational PresentationsPresentations related to a specific occupation.


Beebe, S.A. & Masterson, J.T. (2009). Communicating in small groups: Principles and practices (9th edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Beebe, S.A.& Mottet, T.P. (2010). Business and professional communication: Principles and skills for leadership. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Benne, K.D. & Sheats, P. (1948) . Functional roles of group members. Journal of Social Issues 4, 41-49.

Bohn, E. & Jabusch, D. (1982). The effect of four methods of instruction on the use of visual aids in speeches. The Western Journal of Speech Communication, 46, 253-265.

Brilhart, J.K., Galanes, G.J., & Adams, K. (2001). Effective group discussions: Theory and practice (10th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Carron, A. V., Brawley, L. R., & Widmeyer, N. W. (1998). The measurement of cohesiveness in sports groups. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology

deVito, J. 1992, The interpersonal communication handbook(6th edition). New York: Harper Collins.

Fripp. P. (2011). 9 timely tips for pre-presentation preparation.American Salesman, 56, 13-16.

Keller, J.M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories: An overview of their current status (pp. 383-434). Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kelley, R.E. (1992). The power of followership: How to create leaders that people want to follow and followers who lead themselves. New York: Doubleday/Currency.

Kowitz, A.C. & Knutson., T.J. (1980). Decision making in small groups: The search for alternatives. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Kreitner, R. & Kinicki, A. (1995). Organizational behaviour (3rd edition). Chicago: Irwin.

Lahiff, J. & Penrose, J. 1997, Business communication: Strategies and skills (5th edition). Princeton, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Sprague, J. & Stuart D. (2005). The speaker’s handbook (7th edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Tubbs, S. L. (1995). A systematic approach to small group interaction (5th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

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p. 1 World Diversity Leadership Summit by the United States Navy _Anthony_Junior,_left,_education_programs_manager_for_the_Office_of_Naval_Research,_moderates_a_panel_discussion_ duri.jpg

p. 2 Panel Discussion at LCC by Alyssalevantinecenter

p. 5 Science, Faith and Technology Panel Discussion by David Bruce,_Science,_Faith,_and_Technology.jpg

p. 6 EMP Sound and Vision Panel by Joe Mabel

p. 7 Design Management Institute Conference by Wiki4des

p. 8 International Relief and Development Panel by Crespo Events, LLC

p. 11 German Panel Discussion by Heinrich Boll Stiftung

p. 11 United Nations Conference Bali – by Oxfam International

Glossary and References | Principles of Public Speaking (2024)


What is public speech with reference? ›

Public speaking is the art of conveying information to an audience through oral presentation. It is an act of communication and dates back to the times of ancient Greece. The purpose or intention of public speaking varies and can include informing, motivating, celebrating, entertaining, and persuading.

What are the 7 P's of public speaking? ›

The 7P's are pronunciation, pace, pause, punch, power, passion, and posture.

What are the 5 elements of public speaking? ›

Five basic elements of public speaking are described in this theory: the communicator, message, medium, audience, and effect.

What are the 7 principles of effective public speaking? ›

The author makes frequent use of real-life examples from his own career to illustrate each principle--Perception, Perfection, Visualization, Discipline, Description, Inspiration, and Anticipation--in its own chapter.

What is a speaking reference? ›

Any time you reference someone else's thoughts, ideas, or words, you must give them credit in order to avoid plagiarism. Using oral citations in a presentation helps build your credibility as a speaker, provides your audience with a source, and demonstrates that your information is reputable and can be fact-checked.

What type of reference is a speech? ›

Lectures/speeches are treated as personal communications i.e. they only appear in the text, and are not included in the reference list. However, if the lecturer/speaker has posted the lecture/speech publicly online or in a published form then you can cite it and it would appear in your reference list.

What are the 3 C's of public speaking? ›

Whether you're an entrepreneur, CEO, teacher, or anyone whose job or desired job requires speaking in front of others, this class will help you gain the confidence, presence, and charisma to help you connect with your audience.

What are the 3 S's of public speaking? ›

Style. — Structure. — Substance.

What are the 6 C's of public speaking? ›

They are, Clear, Concise, Correct, Contextual, Concrete and Caring. Becoming adept at harnessing the Six C's also makes you a more compelling individual and not just a compelling communicator.

What is the five finger model of public speaking? ›

Remember the five-finger model of public speakingConsists of the attention statement, introduction, body, conclusion, residual message., as summarized in Table 12.3 "Five-Finger Model of Public Speaking", and you will always stand out as a more effective speaker.

What are the 13 effective public speaking techniques? ›

To become a better speaker, use the following strategies:
  • Plan appropriately.
  • Practice.
  • Engage with your audience.
  • Pay attention to body language.
  • Think positively.
  • Cope with your nerves.
  • Watch recordings of your speeches.

What is the golden rule of public speaking? ›

The Golden Rule of Speaking: Respect Your Audience.

What are the 5 P's of confident public speaking? ›

Incorporating these five P's – pitch, pace, pause, projection, and passion – into your public speaking can significantly enhance your delivery and captivate your audience. Experiment with different techniques, practice regularly, and pay attention to your audience's response to fine-tune your speaking skills.

What is public speech examples? ›

Two adversarial lawyers arguing points of law before a jury is an example of public speaking at its best. Citizens are asked to determine guilt or innocence based on the effectiveness of the speakers and their arguments. In fact, people make important decisions every day based on a speaker's skill in communicating.

How do you cite references in a speech? ›

Orally Citing Information in Your Speech from Andrew Ishak on Vimeo.
  1. Provide the author, title, and date of the book. ...
  2. Provide the author, publication name, and date. ...
  3. Provide the website title and date. ...
  4. Provide the name of the interviewer (if not you), the name and credentials of the interviewee, and the date.
Feb 6, 2024

How do you reference someone's speech? ›

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the speaker). Year of speech. Title of speech. Date of speech, location of speech.

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